Broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug of fluoroquinolone group with bactericidal action. Inhibits DNA gyrase and inhibits the synthesis of bacterial DNA. Highly active against most gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
It is active against Staphylococcus spp. (including strains producing and not producing penicillinase, methicillin-resistant strains), some strains of Enterococcus spp., Campylobacter spp., Legionella spp., Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Mycobacterium spp.
ciprofloxacin is active against bacteria producing beta-lactamases.
Ureaplasma urealyticum, Clostridium difficile, Nocardia asteroides resistant to ciprofloxacin. The effect on Treponema pallidum is studied not enough.
Ofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic considered to be a second-generation fluoroquinolone. Floxin (branded version) had been discontinued by the manufacturer, in the United States, effective June 18, 2009, though generic equivalents continue to be available.
Ofloxacin is a racemic mixture, which consists of 50Enrobioflox levofloxacin (the biologically active component) and 50Enrobioflox of its “mirror image” or enantiomer dextrofloxacin. When levofloxacin disks were not available in early clinical trials, a 5-pg Floxin (ofloxacin –floxacin) disk was substituted. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical reviewers considered the two drugs to be one and the same and hence interchangeable.
Like other quinolones, ofloxacin has been associated with a significant number of serious adverse drug reactions, such as tendon damage (including spontaneous tendon ruptures) and peripheral neuropathy (which may be irreversible); such reactions may manifest long after therapy had been completed, and, in severe cases, may result in life-long disabilities. Ofloxacin has also been associated with severe psychiatric adverse reactions.
Hepatotoxicity has also been reported with the use of ofloxacin. Case reports of hepatitis have been published for the older fluoroquinolones including ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin.
Indications: bacterial infections